作者/Author(s): Lyle Goldstein and Nathan Waechter 

網站來源/Source: RAND Corporation 

日期/Date: 11/07/2023 

關鍵字/Keywords: Military Technology, Military Innovation 



  • 對敵防空壓制(SEAD):遊蕩彈藥的體型小、速度快且難以探測,他們可以用迷惑敵方防空系統的方式來保護己方的飛機 
  • 反砲火作戰:用於偵測和摧毀敵方砲兵 
  • 摧毀裝甲車輛:遊蕩彈藥的有效載荷較小,因此無法有效摧毀敵方堅固的裝甲目標。但是,如果發現獨行且情報意識不佳的坦克,遊蕩彈藥就有機會攻其不備。 
  • 摧毀裝甲車輛:遊蕩彈藥的有效載荷較小,因此無法有效摧毀敵方堅固的裝甲目標。但是,如果發現獨行且情報意識不佳的坦克,遊蕩彈藥就有機會攻其不備。 
  • 要提高遊蕩彈藥的探測能力,就必須採用具有多光譜光電探測能力的現代雷達 
  • 由於使用防空飛彈擊落遊蕩彈藥的成本太高昂,能量雷射也有其侷限性,部署微波武器的效果可能更好。其射程更遠,不受天氣影響,且火力控制能力更強,適合應對無人機群的攻擊。 
  • 由於使用防空飛彈擊落遊蕩彈藥的成本太高昂,能量雷射也有其侷限性,部署微波武器的效果可能更好。其射程更遠,不受天氣影響,且火力控制能力更強,適合應對無人機群的攻擊。 
  • 坦克頂部的遮陽是防護罩、爆炸反應裝甲或尼龍網,都可以減少遊蕩彈藥的傷害 
Many military strategists observe the successful employment of Kamikaze drones or loitering munitions in the Russo-Ukraine War by both belligerents in a war of attrition. As a single platform, loitering munition can conduct intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations or attack targets. China is studying loitering munitions closely and devising lessons from its usage, perhaps intending to deploy them in a Taiwan Strait Crisis. Loitering munitions are relatively low-cost and can destroy high-value and expensive targets, making them highly cost-effective in a war of attrition. The effectiveness of loitering munitions attracts state actors to invest in developing and employing new loitering munitions and their countermeasures. 
Four uses of loitering munitions: 
  • Suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD): Since loitering munitions are small, fast, and hard to detect, they can protect their aircraft by confusing enemy air defenses. 
  • Counter artillery operations: To detect and destroy enemy artillery. 
  • Destroy armored vehicles: Loitering munitions cannot effectively destroy hardened and armored targets due to a small payload. However, if a tank operates independently and has poor situational awareness, it gives loitering munitions a chance to attack its weak spots. 
  • Attack foot soldiers: Loitering munitions are more likely to attack moving human targets on the front line, but once the infantries enter trenches or bunkers, loitering munitions cannot kill effectively. 
Defending against drones and loitering munitions: 
  • Modern radar with muti-spectral photoelectric detection capabilities is necessary to improve the detection of loitering munitions. 
  • Since using anti-air missiles to shoot down loitering munitions is expensive, and energy lasers have limitations, deploying microwave weapons is better because they have a longer reach, are less affected by weather, and have better firepower control, making them more suitable to deal with drone swarm attacks. 
  • Interfering with loitering munitions' navigation system and data network is also a countermeasure. 
  • Sunshade-styled shielding on top of tanks, explosive reactive armor, or nylon mesh can reduce the damage of loitering missiles.