FA: 中國的焦慮 (Part 2)

作者:Rohan Mukherjee
來源:Foreign Affairs
日期:May 19, 2023



  • 中國主要與它認為開放和公平的機構合作,但同時會挑戰那些他們認為封閉和有偏見的機構。中國會根據自己與美國或其他西方大國的地位平等來評估這些機構。
  • 雖然中國偶爾會將其國家利益置於聯合國安理會、聯合國大會、世界貿易組織、核不擴散條約和G20等組織制度目標之上,但大部分時候中國會同意合作,因為這些機構對中國領導層是開放的,並且在程序上對中國的存在是公平的。
  • 中國主要挑戰的是聯合國人權理事會,因為美國及其盟國經常批評中國的人權紀錄,而且該理事會主要由民主國家主持,同時,人權理事會時常否定中國的合法地位,導致中國對聯合國人權理事會已經不滿很久。但其實美國也有著不良的人權紀錄,因此中國時常否認西方對普世人權的主張,並提出應對成員國進行普遍定期審查,並發布美國侵犯人權的年度報告。
  • 中國希望通過改革提升其在國際貨幣基金組織和世界銀行等部分公開體制中的地位。然而,如果改革進展太慢,中國將創建並支持北京可以主導的新機構。同時,中國還提倡將克服氣候變化的責任更公平地分配給西方經濟體。


  • 崛起的大國會願意在可容納它們進入領導層的國際制度中進行更多合作。相反,排斥和不平等往往只會導致衝突。
  • 美國可以做些什麼來提高國際秩序的開放性和公平性,吸引中國合作:
    • 允許中國在其地位穩固的機構中承擔更多責任。
    • 允許在中國不滿意的機構中進行改革。

China's Place in the Club

  • China mainly cooperated in institutions it perceives as open and fair but challenged those it regards as closed and biased. China assesses these institutions based on its status equality with the US or other Western great powers.
  • Although China occasionally puts its national interest above institutional goals in UNSC, UNGA, WTO, NPT, and G-20, it mostly cooperated as they are open to the Chinese leadership and procedurally fair to Chinese presence.
  • China mostly challenged the UNHCR as the US and its allies often criticized China's human rights records, and liberal democracies dominated UNHCR's leadership. China resents the UNHCR as it denies China's legitimate place, and the US also has bad human rights records. Therefore, China often calls to delegitimize the Western claim to universal human rights, supports the Universal Periodic Review of member states, and releases annual reports of US human rights violations.
  • China seeks reforms to enhance its status in partially open and fair regimes such as IMF and the World Bank. However, if the reforms are too slow, China will create and support new institutions that Beijing can dominate. China also promotes fairer allocation of responsibility to Western economies in overcoming climate change.

Admitting China to the Club

  • Rising powers have cooperated more in international regimes that would accommodate them into their leadership. In contrast, exclusion and inequality often lead to conflict.
  • What the US can do to increase openness and fairness of the international order and entice China to cooperate:
    • Allow China to take more responsibility in institutions where China's status is solid.
    • Allow reforms in institutions where China is dissatisfied.