作者/Author(s): Erik Lin-Greenberg 

原文來源/Source: Foreign Affairs 

日期/Date: 12/20/2022 

主題/Key Topics : Military, Drone, Diplomacy 



  • 無人機在俄烏戰爭中證明了其可靠性,因此俄烏甚至世界各國對無人機的需求越來越大。無人機不僅在打擊火力方面有所助益,也可以協助收集情報,甚至可以透過科技技術辨識友軍,讓打擊能力更加精準。同時,作為一款打擊火力武器,無人機的成本很低,相關維護和操作也不能,並且相對容易融入原有的軍事行動中。
  • 雖然飛彈科技管制建制Missile Technology Control Regime,MTCR)限制了美國無人機出口,但未簽署MTCR的國家積極參與無人機貿易 
  • 儘管最初的目的是減少對外國武器的依賴,但像土耳其和伊朗這樣的非常規飛行器出口國家,也增加了其無人機的生產並將其出售給其他國家 
  • 出口無人機增加了供應國的外交力量 
  1. 深化與購買國政府的關係 
  2. 增加自己對對手國家的競爭力 
  3. 參與針對對手的代理戰爭 
  4. 獲得進口無人機政府的一些條件讓步 
  • 各國在無人機銷售市場中相互競爭。誰贏了,誰就能鞏固其作為首選安全夥伴的地位,並使其他國家更難發揮其影響力 
  • 無人機外交使盟友能夠捍衛自己免受競爭對手的無人機攻擊,並釐清彼此的反無人機策略 
Unmanned drones played crucial roles in the Russia-Ukraine War for both sides, which implies the increasing importance of drone exports as a foreign policy instrument. Drone diplomacy is part of arms exports that help states promote their foreign policy agendas and their partners' security. 
  • ​​​​​​​Drones are increasingly in demand because it allows states to project power or gather intelligence and minimize the dangers to friendly personnel with proven credibility in recent combats. They are also economical, simpler to maintain and operate, and easier to integrate into military operations. 
  • While the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) limits US exports of drones, non-MTCR signatories actively participate in unregulated drone trade. 
  • Although the initial aim is to reduce dependency on foreign arms, countries that are not conventional aircraft exporters, such as Turkiye and Iran, also increased their drone production and sold them to other countries. 
  • Drone sales increase the supplier countries' diplomacy power: ​​​​​​​
  1. Deepen ties with client governments. 
  2. Increase competitiveness against rival nations. 
  3. Engage in proxy wars against their adversaries. 
  4. Obtain concessions from clients.
  • ​​​​​​​Countries may compete with each other in drone sales over the same client. Whoever prevails will cement its position as the preferred security partner and makes other states harder to exert their influence. 
  • Drone diplomacy allows allies to defend themselves against a rival's drone or examine their anti-drone tactics. ​​​​​​​